The Principality of Monaco (in French: Principauté de Monaco, in Monegasque: Principality of Múnegu) is a sovereign city-state, located in Western Europe.
According to its constitution, in a state of law that professes respect for fundamental rights and freedoms, and whose form of government is the hereditary and constitutional monarchy. Its territory is organized in ten districts.
The Principality lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the low foothills of the Alps, on the French Riviera. It makes land border with France (5,469 meters) and is in the vicinity of the French-Italian border. It has a coastline of 3,829 meters, and a width that varies between 1700 and 349 meters. The highest point of the country is the Chemin des Révoires trail, with an altitude of 164.4 meters above sea level.
It occupies the second place as the smallest state in the world, being the state of Vatican City the first, and the first by population density. Monaco was an Italian principality, and was linked to Italy until the invasion and French annexation in the late 19th century of the county of Nice. The Italian language was the official language until 1860. The Monegasque language is a variant of the Ligurian language.
Latin America; is an ethnic-geographical concept, appeared in the nineteenth century to identify a region of the Americas with a majority speaking of languages derived from Latin (mainly Spanish or Portuguese and to a lesser extent French).
The region comprises more than twenty million square kilometers of surface area, which corresponds to approximately 13.5% of the planet's surface area. By its extension, Latin America presents a great geographical and biological diversity. It contains practically all the climates of the world and is home to numerous animal and plant species. It also has some of the largest rivers in the world and important food, energy and mineral resources, including its oil, copper, lithium and silver deposits.